Charactistics of Samsara

Again, as declared in the Sutra of the Questions of Maudgalyayana,
The Buddha said to Maudgalyayana, “In every stream and river there are grasses and trees, and regardless of which follows or which goes before, all are carried down to gather in the vast ocean. So it is with this world. Though one may freely enjoy power, station, riches, and pleasure, one cannot escape either birth, aging, sickness, or death. Simply because of failure to follow the Buddha’s teaching, one born as a human being in the next life will still suffer great hardship and be incapable of attaining birth in the lands of the thousand Buddhas. For this reason I teach thus: The land of the Buddha of Immeasurable Life is easy to go to, easy to attain; nevertheless, there are people incapable of practicing and being born there, for they devote themselves instead to the ninety-five false paths. I call such people ‘those without eyes’ and ‘those without ears’.”
Such is the teaching of the sutra. Why then do people not abandon the difficult and rely on the path of easy practice?
Enlightened Ones have thorough comprehension of it. The Mind, though pure in its self-nature from the beginning, is accompanied by ignorance. Being defiled by ignorance, a defiled state of Mind comes into being. But, though defiled, the Mind itself is eternal and immutable. Only the Enlightened Ones are able to understand what this means. What is called the essential nature of Mind is comprehension of the Buddha Mind. When the one Dharmdatu is yet to be realized, the Mind is mutable and is perfect unity with Dharmadhatu. Suddenly, a deluded thoughts arises and diminish.
The Characteristics of Samsara
In analyzing the characteristics of people in samsara, two categories may be featured. The one is “crude”, for those who belong to this category are united with the crude activities of the defiled mind; the other is “subtle”, for those who belong to this category are disunited from the subtle activities of the defiled mind.
Again, each category may in turn be subdivided into the cruder and the subtler. The cruder of the crude belongs to the range of mental activity of ordinary people; the subtler of the crude and the cruder of the subtle belong to that of Bodhisattvas; and the subtler of the subtle belongs to that of Buddhas. These two categories of beings in the phenomenal order come about because of the penetration of ignorance; that is to say, they come about because of the primary cause and the causes and conditions. By the primary cause, “non-enlightenment” is meant; and by the causes and conditions, “the erroneously represented world of objects”.
Since no people are the same, each person has a varied degree of crudeness and subtleness. There are those who can be saved and those who cannot.
When the primary cause ceases to be, then the causes and conditions will cease to be. Because of the cessation of the primary cause, the mind disunited from the represented world of objects, material etc. will cease to be; and because of the cessation of the causes and conditions, the mind united with the attachment to atman and more. will cease to be. What we speak of as “cessation” is the cessation of the features of the deluded mind only and not the cessation of its essence.
There is the essence of the mind of enlightenment that spans eternal. Zoroastorians
Feature an eternal struggle of good versus bad. The Buddhist view is more diversified.
However the essence of the Buddha’s mind is like incense pervading the Temple.
The Incense lingers, but even more, the good Karma of a Buddha also lingers, but lingers for generations whether we know that Buddha or not.
Like the current of electricity through a circuit, the flow has a power carried through the circuit. This is distinguished through the fact that a Light Bulb lights up. If the voltage is light, the electricity is not harmful. But in any scence of the continuity is still there and can be measured. The flow thusly is grounded, (atoms flow though a conductor) but the cycle begins all over again and the potential of light is always available and appearent.
It is with ignorance; on the ground of the essence of Mind there is movement. If the essence of Mind were to cease, then people would be nullified and they would have no support. But since the essence does not cease to be, the mind may continue. Because only dimness of mind ceases to be, the features of the anger, greed, and stupidity of the mind cease accordingly. It is not that the wisdom [i.e., the essence] of Mind ceases. Because of the four kinds of penetration, the defiled states and the pure state emerge and continue uninterrupted. They are (1) the pure state, which is called Dharmadhatu; (2) the cause of all defilements, which is called ignorance; (3) the deluded mind, which is called “activating mind”; (4) the erroneously conceived external world, which is called the “objects of the five senses and of mind”. The old saying is, those who run with the skunks start to smell like the skunks. The skunk permeate his odor in defense and fear and others smell like the skunk. How ever in a Buddhist Temple Incense is burned and everything smells fresh and pleasant. This in many ways purifies and give delight to the senses and gives our minds a positive attribute. One that reaches our Buddha mind.
How does the penetration of ignorance give rise to the defiled state and continue uninterrupted? It may be said that, on the ground of Dharmadhatu [i.e., the original enlightenment], ignorance [i.e., nonenlightenment] appears. Ignorance, the primary cause of the defiled state, infuses into Dharmadhatu. Because of this penetration a deluded mindmanifests. Because of the deluded mind, deluded thoughts further permeate into ignorance. While the principle of Dharmadhatu is yet to be realized, the deluded mind, developing thoughts manifested in a state of ignorance. This erroneously conceived objects of the senses and the mind. These erroneously conceived objects of the senses and the mind, the causes and conditions in bringing about the defiled state, permeate into the deluded mind and cause the deluded mind to attach itself to its ideas, to create various evil karma, and to undergo all kinds of physical and mental anguish. The penetration of the erroneously conceived objects of the senses and the mind is of two kinds. One is the basic penetration by the “activating mind”, which causes Arhats, Pratyeka-buddhas, and all Bodhisattvas to undergo the suffering of samsara, and the other is the penetration which accelerates the activities of the “object-discriminating consciousness” and which makes ordinary people suffer from the ill effects of their karma. The penetrations of ignorance are of two kinds. One is the basic penetration, since it can put into operation the “activating mind”, and the other is the penetration that develops perverse views and attachments, since it can put into operation the “object-discriminating consciousness”.
Infusion of Dharmadhatu
How does the penetration of Dharmadhatu give rise to the pure state and continue uninterrupted? It may be said that there is the principle of Dharmadhatu, and it can permeate into ignorance. Through the force of this penetration, Dharmadhatu causes the deluded mind to despise the suffering of samsara and to aspire for nirvana. Because this mind, though still deluded, is now possessed with loathing and aspiration, it infuses into Dharmadhatu in that it induces Dharmadhatu to manifest itself. Thus a man comes to believe in his essential nature, to know that what exists is the erroneous activity of the mind and that the world of objects in front of him is nonexistent, and to practice teachings to free himself from the erroneously conceived world of objects. He knows what is really so – that there is no world of objects in front of him – and therefore with various devices he practices courses by which to conform himself to Dharmadhatu. He will not attach himself to anything nor give rise to any deluded thoughts. Through the force of this penetration of Dharmadhatu over a long period of time, his ignorance ceases. Because of the cessation of ignorance, there will be no more rising of the deluded activities of mind. Because of the non-rising of the deluded activities of mind, the world of objects as previously conceived ceases to be; because of the cessation of both the primary cause (ignorance) and the causes and conditions (objects), the attributes of the defiled mind will all be nullified. This is called “gaining nirvana and accomplishing spontaneous acts”. The penetration of Dharmadhatu into the deluded mind is of two kinds. The first is the penetration into the “object-discriminating consciousness”. Because of this penetration, ordinary men despise the suffering of samsara, and thereupon each, according to his capacity, gradually advances toward the highest enlightenment. The second is the penetration into mind. Because of this penetration, Bodhisattvas advance to nirvana rapidly and with aspiration and fortitude. Two kinds of penetration of Dharmadhatu into ignorance can be identified. The first is the “penetration through manifestation of the essence of Dharmadhatu”, and the second is “the penetration through external influences”.

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About tinorozzo

Polical and Religious Philosopher
This entry was posted in Buddhism, Jodo Shinshu, Religion, Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink.

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